晚清有一批热衷中国教育的外国传教士,兴建了中国这所最早的大学

来源:日月晨云      日期:03-26 15:29     浏览数:9089次
晚清有一批热衷中国教育的外国传教士,兴建了中国这所最早的大学

谢福芸是英国人Dorothea Hosie的中文名。她生于中国,在浙江温州度过了还算美好的童年。长大后的她成了一名作家,写过多本与中国有关的书。他的父亲苏慧廉是赴华传教士、牛律汉学家。

谢福芸在她51岁时回访中国,来到山西太原的山西大学。当时,任山西大学校长的是王录勋,为了去车站迎接谢女土,他特意从省政府借来一辆福特汽车。那是1936年,在地处偏远的山西,一辆福特汽车比如今的私人飞机还稀罕。掌管山西军政大权的阎锡山抽空会见了谢福芸。她之所以受到这么高的礼遇,就是因为苏慧廉是她的父亲。

1907年7月,苏慧廉偕妻子苏路熙从温州抵达山西省太原府,正式履任山西大学堂西学专斋的总教习。在此之前,他们一直在温州从事传教工作。他受到另一位英国人的邀请才来到太原,这位英国人就是西学专斋的创建者李提摩太。苏慧廉在1911年7月离开了山西大学堂,从此再没回来。他是在女儿回访中国前一年去世的,享年74岁。

在山西大学,王录勋校长领着谢福芸,来到一个刚刚落成的大厅内。大厅两侧树立着崭新、高大的黄铜板。谢福芸在左侧的铜板上看到了她父亲的名字:苏慧廉。铭刻在上的名字还有苏慧廉的同事,他们是英国籍和中国籍的教职员。此外,铜板上还铭刻着另外一群人的姓名,他们是1900年那一场惊天血案中的死难者。

在山西教案中死去的传教士和教民,用他们的血换来了西学专斋的成立。谢福芸回访山西大学,看到死难者获得了应有的尊重,他们的姓名被铭刻在铜板上,向后人述说着这所大学的历史。谢福芸感到宽慰。

西学专斋第一任总教习是英国传教士敦祟礼,李提摩太任督办,但他在上海主持广学会,没有太多时间和精力参与日常校务。

西学专斋分预科、专科两个阶段。预料学制三年,相当于如今的高中;专科学制四年,相当于现在的大学本科。学科设置为五门:文学、法律、格致学、工程学、医学。课程有文史、地理、政治、算术、物理、化学、矿路、地质等。值得一提的是,西学专斋根据山西作为资源大省的特点,针对性地设置了工程、路矿、地质等课程。此外,西学专斋还有体操、网球、足球等活动,这些在当时极其新颖的活动让中学专斋的同学们羡慕不已。

敦祟礼在管理西学专斋期间尽心竭力,卓有建树,赢得了师生们的爱戴。不幸的是,他英年早逝。年仅45岁。依照逝者生前的意愿。遗体被安葬在风景秀美的乌金山。生前,他曾在这里疗养。他的同事们在墓地上立了一座欧式纪念碑。这位踏足远行的英国人,永远地留在了异乡。清廷为了表彰他为中国教育事业做出的贡献,在他去世后追赏一品顶戴。

接替敦祟礼担任西学专斋总教习的是苏慧廉。在任期间,他意识到中国学科建设基础薄弱,尤其是专业术语混乱,每位翻译者都不得不自己生造词汇。为了统一专业术语,他在拜访学部左侍郎严修时,极力游说。1909年9月,学部成立编订名词馆,负责编纂和统一各个新学科的名词、普及新式教育、发展新学术。因编译《天演论》而闻名的严复被任命为总编辑,则过而立之年的王国维出任协修。

光阴茬苒,时间很快走到了1910年底,此时,距离周之镶与李提摩太在合同上各自签下自己的姓名,已经过去了九年。12月中旬,李提摩太再次来到太原府。新任山西巡抚丁宝铨率领官员和师生,在山西大学堂为李提摩太举办了热烈的欢迎仪式。李提摩太决定提前一年辞去西学专斋督办职务;将管理权移交中方。他的唯一希望就是西学专斋的教职员能够继续得到聘用。丁宝铨答应了他的请求。

苏慧廉在1911年7月离开太原府,走后没多久,武昌起义爆发,山西新军在阎锡山的率领下,响应了起义。民国元年,山西大学堂改名为山西大学校,西学专斋被废除。

十年间,从西学专斋毕业的学生总计363人,其中预料313人,专科50人,派出36人赴英国留学。这些留学生取得硕士或博士学位后归国。接待谢福芸的山西大学校长王录勋就是其中之一。

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